Dieses Patent schloss somit auch die bereits zuvor gemachte Erfindung des Deutschen Philipp Reis mit ein, nämlich dessen Telefon. Bell gründete die Firma. Vor Jahren gelang Graham Bell eine bahnbrechende Erfindung: Er entdeckte, wie man Schallwellen in elektrische Schwingungen. Die historisch nachhaltigste Wirkung hatte.
Alexander Graham BellAls am Februar des Jahres beim amerikanischen Patentamt Alexander Graham Bell ein Patent für ein Telefon einreichte, war den bearbeitenden. Alexander Graham Bell ( - ) sich ergehen lassen, da viele andere "Erfinder" plötzlich behaupteten, sie hätten vor ihm das Telefon (ohne zu wissen. Mitte des Jahrhunderts wird das Telefon gleich vierfach erfunden. Am Ende aber kassiert Alexander Graham Bell den Ruhm.
Alexander Graham Bell Erfindungen Birthplace VideoAlexander Graham Bell: A Great Inventor Die historisch nachhaltigste Wirkung hatte. Alexander G. Bell und das Telefon des Antonio Meucci[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Siehe auch: Erfindung. Ein Schauspieler in der Rolle von Alexander Graham Bell spricht in ein Telefon. Auch war dieses erste Telefon war nicht sonderlich gebrauchsfähig. meldet Alexander Graham Bell sein Telefon zum Patent an und verbesserte es immer.
Der Mein 02 Login Casino verfГgt Гber eine EU-GlГcksspiellizenz aus Malta und ist! - Block OG Menu SimpleDas Telefon wäre ohne die Tipico Glücksrad Übertragung von Zeichen nicht möglich gewesen. Alexander Graham Bell Bell c. Born March 3, Edinburgh, Scotland Died August 2, () (aged 75) Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, Canada Citizenship United Kingdom (–) British-subject in Canada (–) United States (–) Alma mater University of Edinburgh University College London Occupation Inventor Scientist Engineer Professor a Teacher of the deaf. The Beinn Bhreagh Recorder was a regular publication, created by Alexander Graham Bell, that recorded the progress of Bell's various scientific research projects as well as local and family events at his summer home in Nova Scotia. Laboratory Notebooks - Home Notes, Volume 64, Laboratory Notebooks - Laboratory Notes, Volume 31, Birthplace Alexander Graham Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on March 3, Bell’s father was a professor of speech elocution at the University of Edinburgh and his mother, despite being. Inventions. Bell's genius is seen in part by the eighteen patents granted in his name alone and the twelve that he shared with others. These included fifteen for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone, one for the phonograph, five for aeronautics, four for hydrofoils, and two for a selenium cell. Alexander Graham Bell poses for a portrait with his wife Mabel Hubbard Gardiner Bell in Library of Congress/Getty Images A childhood illness left Bell’s mother mostly deaf and reliant on an.
Although his invention rendered him independently wealthy, he sold off most of his stock holdings in the company early and did not profit as much as he might have had he retained his shares.
Thus, by the mids his role in the telephone industry was marginal. By that time, Bell had developed a growing interest in the technology of sound recording and playback.
Although Edison had invented the phonograph in , he soon turned his attention to other technologies, especially electric power and lighting, and his machine, which recorded and reproduced sound on a rotating cylinder wrapped in tinfoil, remained an unreliable and cumbersome device.
In the French government awarded Bell the Volta Prize, given for achievement in electrical science. Bell used the prize money to set up his Volta Laboratory, an institution devoted to studying deafness and improving the lives of the deaf, in Washington, D.
There he also devoted himself to improving the phonograph. By Bell and his colleagues his cousin Chichester A. Bell and the inventor Charles Sumner Tainter had a design fit for commercial use that featured a removable cardboard cylinder coated with mineral wax.
They called their device the Graphophone and applied for patents, which were granted in The group formed the Volta Graphophone Company to produce their invention.
Then in they sold their patents to the American Graphophone Company, which later evolved into the Columbia Phonograph Company. Bell used his proceeds from the sale to endow the Volta Laboratory.
Bell undertook two other noteworthy research projects at the Volta Laboratory. In he began research on using light as a means to transmit sound.
In British scientist Willoughby Smith discovered that the element selenium , a semiconductor , varied its electrical resistance with the intensity of incident light.
Bell sought to use this property to develop the photophone, an invention he regarded as at least equal to his telephone. He was able to demonstrate that the photophone was technologically feasible , but it did not develop into a commercially viable product.
Nevertheless, it contributed to research into the photovoltaic effect that had practical applications later in the 20th century.
The origin of this effort was the shooting of U. President James A. Garfield in July His older brother Melville had married and moved out. With aspirations to obtain a degree at University College London , Bell considered his next years as preparation for the degree examinations, devoting his spare time at his family's residence to studying.
Hull's private school for the deaf in South Kensington , London. His first two pupils were deaf-mute girls who made remarkable progress under his tutelage.
While his older brother seemed to achieve success on many fronts including opening his own elocution school, applying for a patent on an invention, and starting a family, Bell continued as a teacher.
However, in May , Melville died from complications due to tuberculosis, causing a family crisis. His father had also suffered a debilitating illness earlier in life and had been restored to health by a convalescence in Newfoundland.
Bell's parents embarked upon a long-planned move when they realized that their remaining son was also sickly.
Acting decisively, Alexander Melville Bell asked Bell to arrange for the sale of all the family property,  [N 7] conclude all of his brother's affairs Bell took over his last student, curing a pronounced lisp ,  and join his father and mother in setting out for the " New World ".
Reluctantly, Bell also had to conclude a relationship with Marie Eccleston, who, as he had surmised, was not prepared to leave England with him.
In , year-old Bell travelled with his parents and his brother's widow, Caroline Margaret Ottaway,  to Paris, Ontario ,  to stay with Thomas Henderson, a Baptist minister and family friend.
The property consisted of an orchard, large farmhouse, stable, pigsty, hen-house, and a carriage house , which bordered the Grand River.
At the homestead, Bell set up his own workshop in the converted carriage house near to what he called his "dreaming place",  a large hollow nestled in trees at the back of the property above the river.
For his work, Bell was awarded the title of Honorary Chief and participated in a ceremony where he donned a Mohawk headdress and danced traditional dances.
After setting up his workshop, Bell continued experiments based on Helmholtz's work with electricity and sound. Bell's father was invited by Sarah Fuller , principal of the Boston School for Deaf Mutes which continues today as the public Horace Mann School for the Deaf ,  in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, to introduce the Visible Speech System by providing training for Fuller's instructors, but he declined the post in favour of his son.
Travelling to Boston in April , Bell proved successful in training the school's instructors. Returning home to Brantford after six months abroad, Bell continued his experiments with his "harmonic telegraph".
Unsure of his future, he first contemplated returning to London to complete his studies, but decided to return to Boston as a teacher.
Teaching his father's system, in October , Alexander Bell opened his "School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech" in Boston, which attracted a large number of deaf pupils, with his first class numbering 30 students.
She was later to say that Bell dedicated his life to the penetration of that "inhuman silence which separates and estranges". Several influential people of the time, including Bell, viewed deafness as something that should be eradicated, and also believed that with resources and effort, they could teach the deaf to read lips and speak known as oralism  and not use sign language , thus enabling their integration within the wider society from which many were often being excluded.
During this period, he alternated between Boston and Brantford, spending summers in his Canadian home. At Boston University, Bell was "swept up" by the excitement engendered by the many scientists and inventors residing in the city.
He continued his research in sound and endeavored to find a way to transmit musical notes and articulate speech, but although absorbed by his experiments, he found it difficult to devote enough time to experimentation.
While days and evenings were occupied by his teaching and private classes, Bell began to stay awake late into the night, running experiment after experiment in rented facilities at his boarding house.
Keeping "night owl" hours, he worried that his work would be discovered and took great pains to lock up his notebooks and laboratory equipment.
Bell had a specially made table where he could place his notes and equipment inside a locking cover.
Deciding to give up his lucrative private Boston practice, Bell retained only two students, six-year-old "Georgie" Sanders, deaf from birth, and year-old Mabel Hubbard.
Each pupil would play an important role in the next developments. George's father, Thomas Sanders, a wealthy businessman, offered Bell a place to stay in nearby Salem with Georgie's grandmother, complete with a room to "experiment".
Although the offer was made by George's mother and followed the year-long arrangement in where her son and his nurse had moved to quarters next to Bell's boarding house, it was clear that Mr.
Sanders was backing the proposal. The arrangement was for teacher and student to continue their work together, with free room and board thrown in. Having lost her hearing after a near-fatal bout of scarlet fever close to her fifth birthday,   [N 12] she had learned to read lips but her father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard , Bell's benefactor and personal friend, wanted her to work directly with her teacher.
By , Bell's initial work on the harmonic telegraph had entered a formative stage, with progress made both at his new Boston "laboratory" a rented facility and at his family home in Canada a big success.
Bell thought it might be possible to generate undulating electrical currents that corresponded to sound waves. But he had no working model to demonstrate the feasibility of these ideas.
In , telegraph message traffic was rapidly expanding and in the words of Western Union President William Orton , had become "the nervous system of commerce".
Antonio Meucci sent a telephone model and technical details to the Western Union telegraph company but failed to win a meeting with executives.
When he asked for his materials to be returned, in , he was told they had been lost. Two years later Bell, who shared a laboratory with Meucci, filed a patent for a telephone, became a celebrity and made a lucrative deal with Western Union.
Meucci sued and was nearing victory—the supreme court agreed to hear the case and fraud charges were initiated against Bell—when the Florentine died in The legal action died with him.
In March , Bell and Pollok visited the scientist Joseph Henry , who was then director of the Smithsonian Institution , and asked Henry's advice on the electrical multi-reed apparatus that Bell hoped would transmit the human voice by telegraph.
Henry replied that Bell had "the germ of a great invention". When Bell said that he did not have the necessary knowledge, Henry replied, "Get it!
However, a chance meeting in between Bell and Thomas A. Watson , an experienced electrical designer and mechanic at the electrical machine shop of Charles Williams, changed all that.
With financial support from Sanders and Hubbard, Bell hired Thomas Watson as his assistant, [N 14] and the two of them experimented with acoustic telegraphy.
On June 2, , Watson accidentally plucked one of the reeds and Bell, at the receiving end of the wire, heard the overtones of the reed; overtones that would be necessary for transmitting speech.
That demonstrated to Bell that only one reed or armature was necessary, not multiple reeds. This led to the "gallows" sound-powered telephone , which could transmit indistinct, voice-like sounds, but not clear speech.
In , Bell developed an acoustic telegraph and drew up a patent application for it. Since he had agreed to share U. Meanwhile, Elisha Gray was also experimenting with acoustic telegraphy and thought of a way to transmit speech using a water transmitter.
On February 14, , Gray filed a caveat with the U. Patent Office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter. That same morning, Bell's lawyer filed Bell's application with the patent office.
There is considerable debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell's patent. Bell was in Boston on February 14 and did not arrive in Washington until February Bell's patent ,, was issued to Bell on March 7, , by the U.
Patent Office. Bell's patent covered "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically On March 10, , three days after his patent was issued, Bell succeeded in getting his telephone to work, using a liquid transmitter similar to Gray's design.
Vibration of the diaphragm caused a needle to vibrate in the water, varying the electrical resistance in the circuit.
When Bell spoke the sentence "Mr. Watson—Come here—I want to see you" into the liquid transmitter,  Watson, listening at the receiving end in an adjoining room, heard the words clearly.
Although Bell was, and still is, accused of stealing the telephone from Gray,  Bell used Gray's water transmitter design only after Bell's patent had been granted, and only as a proof of concept scientific experiment,  to prove to his own satisfaction that intelligible "articulate speech" Bell's words could be electrically transmitted.
The question of priority for the variable resistance feature of the telephone was raised by the examiner before he approved Bell's patent application.
He told Bell that his claim for the variable resistance feature was also described in Gray's caveat. Bell pointed to a variable resistance device in his previous application in which he described a cup of mercury, not water.
He had filed the mercury application at the patent office a year earlier on February 25, , long before Elisha Gray described the water device.
In addition, Gray abandoned his caveat, and because he did not contest Bell's priority, the examiner approved Bell's patent on March 3, Gray had reinvented the variable resistance telephone, but Bell was the first to write down the idea and the first to test it in a telephone.
The patent examiner , Zenas Fisk Wilber, later stated in an affidavit that he was an alcoholic who was much in debt to Bell's lawyer, Marcellus Bailey , with whom he had served in the Civil War.
He claimed he showed Gray's patent caveat to Bailey. Wilber also claimed after Bell arrived in Washington D. Bell claimed they discussed the patent only in general terms, although in a letter to Gray, Bell admitted that he learned some of the technical details.
Bell denied in an affidavit that he ever gave Wilber any money. On March 10, Bell used "the instrument" in Boston to call Thomas Watson who was in another room but out of earshot.
He said, "Mr. Watson, come here — I want to see you" and Watson soon appeared at his side. Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought home a working model of his telephone.
On August 3, , from the telegraph office in Brantford, Ontario, Bell sent a tentative telegram to the village of Mount Pleasant four miles six kilometres distant, indicating that he was ready.
He made a telephone call via telegraph wires and faint voices were heard replying. The following night, he amazed guests as well as his family with a call between the Bell Homestead and the office of the Dominion Telegraph Company in Brantford along an improvised wire strung up along telegraph lines and fences, and laid through a tunnel.
This time, guests at the household distinctly heard people in Brantford reading and singing. The third test on August 10, , was made via the telegraph line between Brantford and Paris, Ontario, eight miles thirteen kilometres distant.
This test was said by many sources to be the "world's first long-distance call". The first two-way reciprocal conversation over a line occurred between Cambridge and Boston roughly 2.
The president of Western Union balked, countering that the telephone was nothing but a toy. By then, the Bell company no longer wanted to sell the patent.
Bell began a series of public demonstrations and lectures to introduce the new invention to the scientific community as well as the general public.
A short time later, his demonstration of an early telephone prototype at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia brought the telephone to international attention.
One of the judges at the Exhibition, Sir William Thomson later, Lord Kelvin , a renowned Scottish scientist, described the telephone as "the greatest by far of all the marvels of the electric telegraph".
These were the first publicly witnessed long-distance telephone calls in the UK. The queen considered the process to be "quite extraordinary" although the sound was "rather faint".
The Bell Telephone Company was created in , and by , more than , people in the U. Bell Company engineers made numerous other improvements to the telephone, which emerged as one of the most successful products ever.
In , the Bell company acquired Edison's patents for the carbon microphone from Western Union. This made the telephone practical for longer distances, and it was no longer necessary to shout to be heard at the receiving telephone.
In January , Bell made the first ceremonial transcontinental telephone call. The New York Times reported:. Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston.
It was the first wire conversation ever held. Yesterday afternoon [on January 25, ], the same two men talked by telephone to each other over a 3,mile wire between New York and San Francisco.
Bell, the veteran inventor of the telephone, was in New York, and Mr. Watson, his former associate, was on the other side of the continent.
As is sometimes common in scientific discoveries, simultaneous developments can occur, as evidenced by a number of inventors who were at work on the telephone.
Supreme Court ,  but none was successful in establishing priority over the original Bell patent   and the Bell Telephone Company never lost a case that had proceeded to a final trial stage.
In personal correspondence to Bell, both Gray and Dolbear had acknowledged his prior work, which considerably weakened their later claims. On January 13, , the U.
Government moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation. Er unterstützte die beginnende Luftfahrt, baute schnelle Motorboote und befasste sich auch mit der Tierzucht.
Im Jahrhundert, also in der Zeit der Erfindung des Telefons haben sich verschiedene Forscher unabhängig voneinander mit diesem Thema beschäftigt.
Und es hat sich gezeigt. The couple married on July 11, They went on to have four children, including two sons who died as infants.
In , Bell started working on the harmonic telegraph — a device that allowed multiple messages to be transmitted over a wire at the same time.
While trying to perfect this technology, which was backed by a group of investors, Bell became preoccupied with finding a way to transmit human voice over wires.
By , Bell, with the help of his partner Thomas Watson, had come up with a simple receiver that could turn electricity into sound. On March 7, , Bell was granted his telephone patent.
Watson, come here. I want you. In , the U. In addition to the telephone, Bell worked on hundreds of projects throughout his career and received patents in various fields.
Some of his other notable inventions were:. In , Bell was awarded the French Volta Prize, and with the money, he founded a facility devoted to scientific discovery, the Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.
Bell invented numerous techniques to help teach speech to the deaf and even worked with well-known author and activist Helen Keller.
He also helped launch Science magazine , and from to served as president of the National Geographic Society. In , Bell was given the controversial title of honorary president at the Second International Congress of Eugenics.
Aus dieser Erfindung entstand die Idee, ein anderes Gerät von besserer Qualität und besserer Kommunikation herzustellen: das Telefon kam an.
Nach der Schaffung dieses Geräts kamen andere an, die auch die Zukunft der Telekommunikation und Technologie verändern würden. Es ist ein Gerät für die Kommunikation zwischen Menschen.
Die meisten Telefone sind einfach zu bedienen, einige sind weniger teuer als andere und fast jeder hat einen. Obwohl es moderne Telefone gibt, die Funktionen haben, um Videoanrufe, Ferngespräche und Anwendungen zu machen, um mit Leuten aus anderen Teilen der Welt zu sprechen, gibt es andere, die nur Textnachrichten und Anrufe haben.
Andere verfügen über Touchscreens, die einen einfachen Zugriff auf alle Telefonanwendungen und viele weitere Funktionen ermöglichen.Also published as: Bell, Alexander Graham September Katamon, The National Geographic Magazine. Kiley Carleton L. Ultimately, the talented scientist held more than 18 patents for his inventions and work in communications. Alexander Graham Bell at Wikipedia's sister projects. National Geographic Milestones. Wiederhergestellt von: britannica. The Sportwetten Gratis of Social Justice in Education. Retrieved April 5, Perplexed by the peculiar results he had obtained during an examination of Garfield, Bell "proceeded to the Executive Mansion the next Passe Roulette